No list of web development tools would be complete without at least one accessibility tool. Accessibility is one of those often-neglected aspects of design and development, and ally.js can simplify it for you.
ally.js is a JS library that gives you fine control over focusable and non-focusable elements. For example, using its API you can prevent elements outside a modal window from receiving focus until the modal is closed. You can also find out exactly which elements are focusable or tabbable, and identify focus changes within the shadow DOM.
Two other powerful features are the ability to determine in what manner focus has changed (keyboard, mouse, etc.) and when an element is focusable and physically visible on the screen (this can help to avoid page scroll).
What Is Full Stack Development?
It is almost impossible to create a full-fledged software product using only one technology. This usually involves complete tech stacks – Standard combinations of tools and programming languages. As all software products consist of the client side and a server, there are usually two separate stacks that cover each of the layers. However, there are approaches that can be used to build web or mobile applicationfrom A to Z. These are called full stack development.
LAMP Stack: Linux, Apache, MySQL, PHP
LAMP has been a popular choice for web development since 2000 due to its open-source nature and Linux’s friendliness towards developers. It includes Linux operating system, Apache web server, MySQL database, and PHP application software. Recently, LAMP stack has been slowly transforming into LEMP, with more and more developers replacing Apache web server with NGINX. Although Apache is used by the lion’s shareof existing websites, it’s taking losses while NGINX is rapidly growing.
LAMP/LEMP stack is easily modified, traditional, secure, and free – a great choice for enterprise apps and prototypes that often require a high level of customization along with cost-effectiveness. With the full access to the source code and an ability to mix and match components of the stack, developers gain great flexibility and can make custom choices depending on each specific application.
MEAN Stack: MongoDB, Express, AngularJS, and Node.js
Ruby on Rails: Ruby, SQLite, PHP
Often called just Rails, this web development framework uses Ruby as a programming language and its own default database called SQLite with various compatible web servers such as Apache, NGINX, Passenger, or WEBrick. According to GitHub’s year in review, Ruby is 4th most popular language of 2017, and Rails augments it and makes it possible to write a website on Ruby. Rails owes a part of its popularity to Ruby – the language’s clean syntax helps you build complex websites quickly and happily (at least, that’s how the Ruby’s creator would like developers to feel).
Rails is especially popular among startups due to various reasons. The abundance of shareable software libraries called RubyGem allows businesses to develop rapidly using free and existing components. Also, simplicity that lies in the foundation of Rails’ philosophy is expressed in such principles as Convention Over Configuration and Don’t Repeat Yourself that minimize your code and help you make less decisions.
Django Stack: Python, Django, MySQL
Instagram, Mozilla, Bitbucket, and the NASA’s website are all powered by this Python-driven environment. With the attention towards such technologies as machine learning and big data that majorly rely on Python, the language popularity is steadily growing, according to TIOBE and StackOverflow. Django follows the “batteries included” approach meaning that all of its functionality already comes with the framework and doesn’t require additional libraries. Thanks to this, Django relieves you from making many choices and makes it possible to create news, blogs, or eCommerce stores with its abundance of default tools. With its broad range of tutorials, a supportive community, and a clean and rapid development experience, Django is perfect for starting Python programmers. If you want something different from what this stack can offer, look into smaller packages such as Flask and Pyramid, each with its own level of flexibility and best use cases.
Aside from choosing between the existing software packages, you can compose your own stack by looking at the technology used by popular websites and applications. If you want to build a new Yelp or Reddit, check out the portals like StackShare and TechStacks for the lists of all main technologies applied.